The study assessed the competitiveness of the South Sudanese economy in terms of export performance. The goal is to provide an analytical foundation for the development of policy recommendations with a view to enhancing the export competitiveness of the country and the overall regional benefit of trade. It is envisaged that as the country develops, the structure of its trade with neighbouring countries will change in a manner that will benefit the whole region. The study examines the current state of South Sudan’s trade with its regional trading partners, including Ethiopia, Kenya, Sudan, Uganda, and to an extent the Central Africa Republic (CAR) and the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). It provides an overview of the structure of both formal and informal trade between South Sudan and its major trading partners; constraints on cross border trade; concrete measures undertaken to facilitate cross-border trade; existing trade related regulatory frameworks, and the capacity of the Government of South Sudan to monitor, evaluate and enforce trade policies and laws.