This Issue Brief examines the history of Sudan’s militia strategy and the role of militias in the country’s armed conflicts, notably in Darfur and the Two Areas of South Kordofan and Blue Nile. It discusses the use of para-military forces and militias in Sudan from the 1980s until the present day, including their alleged roles in resource exploitation. It then examines the long-term economic, political, and social costs of the militia strategy for the Sudanese state and society. Finally, it discusses the implications of the militia strategy for any future security sector reform (SSR) process in Sudan, noting that the maintenance of a para-military marketplace in Sudan is an impediment to peacebuilding there and in the wider region.
The Human Security Baseline Assessment (HSBA) for Sudan and South Sudan is a multi-year research project administered by the Small Arms Survey, a global centre of excellence located at the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies. It has been developed in cooperation with the Canadian government, UNMIS, UNDP, and NGO partners. Through the active generation and dissemination of timely empirical research, the project supports violence reduction initiatives, including disarmament, demobilization and reintegration programmes, incentive schemes for civilian arms collections and security sector reform and arms control interventions across Sudan.